The Bulgarian Split Squat, often referred to as the “Bulgarian lunge” or “rear-foot elevated split squat,” is a highly effective lower-body exercise that focuses on building strength, balance, and muscular development. This exercise involves standing on one leg with the rear foot elevated behind you, and it places significant emphasis on the quadriceps, hamstrings, and glutes, and even engages the core for stability. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the technique, benefits, and alternatives to the Bulgarian Split Squat.


The Bulgarian Split Squat gets its name from the Bulgarian weightlifting team, which popularized the exercise for building leg strength and stability. It’s known for its versatility, as it can be performed with various equipment, including dumbbells, barbells, or body weights. This exercise is precious for athletes, fitness enthusiasts, and anyone looking to improve lower body strength and balance.

Instructions for Bulgarian Split Squat


  1. Position: Stand facing away from a bench, step, or sturdy surface that’s approximately knee height. The bench or step should be behind you.
  2. Stance: Start with your feet hip-width apart and your chest up. This is your starting position.


  1. Elevation: Extend one leg behind you and place the top of your foot on the bench or step. Your toes should be facing down. The other foot remains forward, and you’ll be lunging with this leg.
  2. Descent: Begin the movement by bending your front knee and lowering your body toward the ground. Keep your chest up, back straight, and core engaged.
  3. Depth: Lower your body until your front thigh is parallel to the ground, or your knee is at a 90-degree angle.
  4. Ascent: Push through the heel of your front foot to return to the starting position. Keep your balance and control throughout the movement.
  5. Repetition: Perform the desired number of repetitions on one leg before switching to the other leg.


  • Maintain proper posture by keeping your chest up and your back straight.
  • Ensure that your front knee is aligned with your front foot and doesn’t extend past your toes.
  • Engage your core to stabilize your body and protect your lower back.
  • Keep your rear foot relaxed on the bench or step, with the top of your foot resting on the surface.
  • Use a controlled tempo to maximize muscle engagement and control during the exercise.


  1. Leg Strength: The Bulgarian Split Squat is an excellent exercise for building strength in the quadriceps, hamstrings, and glutes. It allows you to focus on each leg individually, helping to address muscle imbalances.
  2. Balance and Stability: Since it’s a unilateral exercise, it challenges your balance and coordination, promoting overall stability. This can particularly benefit athletes and individuals looking to improve functional fitness.
  3. Core Engagement: To maintain balance, your core muscles, including the abdominals and lower back, are engaged. This promotes core strength and stability.
  4. Joint Health: The exercise can help improve joint mobility and strengthen the muscles around the knees and hips, contributing to improved joint health and injury prevention.
  5. Versatility: The Bulgarian Split Squat can be modified with various equipment or done as a bodyweight exercise, making it adaptable to different fitness levels and training goals.


While the Bulgarian Split Squat is a valuable lower-body exercise, incorporating a variety of squat variations and alternative exercises can provide a well-rounded lower-body workout and prevent training plateaus. Here are some alternatives to the Bulgarian Split Squat:

  1. Forward Lunge: Step forward with one foot and lower your body into a lunge, then return to the starting position. This exercise emphasizes single-leg strength and stability.
  2. Reverse Lunge: Step backward with one foot and lower your body into a lunge, then return to the starting position. Like the forward lunge, it targets the quadriceps, hamstrings, and glutes.
  3. Dumbbell Split Squat: Perform the Bulgarian Split Squat with dumbbells in both hands. This variation adds resistance and increases the challenge.
  4. Bulgarian Split Squat with Barbell: Hold a barbell across your upper back while performing the Bulgarian Split Squat. This is an advanced variation that intensifies the exercise.
  5. Elevated Split Squat: Place your rear foot on an elevated surface, such as a bench or step, to increase the range of motion and stretch on the hip flexors.
  6. Single-Leg Squat (Pistol Squat): This advanced bodyweight exercise targets leg strength and balance, with a focus on the quadriceps and glutes of the working leg.
  7. Goblet Squat: Hold a kettlebell or dumbbell close to your chest with both hands and perform squats. This exercise is less challenging for balance but still targets the lower body effectively.

Incorporating these alternatives into your training routine can help you achieve well-rounded leg strength, stability, and mobility. Depending on your goals and preferences, you can rotate through these exercises to keep your workouts challenging and effective.

In conclusion, the Bulgarian Split Squat is a versatile and effective exercise for building leg strength, balance, and stability. When performed with proper form and technique, it can be a valuable addition to your lower body training routine. If you’re new to this exercise or have specific fitness goals, consider consulting with a fitness professional or personal trainer for guidance and a customized workout plan.

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